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Titan, An Extraterrestrial World That Resembles The Physical Features Of The Earth

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Saturn's largest moon 'Titan', looks very familiar to Earth from space. The moon has rivers, lakes and seas filled by rain falling through a thick atmosphere. Though these landscapes look similar, they are composed of different materials. Liquid methane streams streak Titan's icy surface, and nitrogen winds build hydrocarbon sand dunes. Image Credits: Pixabay The mechanical properties of these materials are different from those of silicate-based substances that make up other sedimentary bodies in the solar system. These materials make Titan's landscape formation mysterious. Researchers at Stanford University have shown how Titan's different plains, labyrinth terrains and dunes could be formed by identifying a process of the formation of sand grains and bedrock depending on how the stream flows and the wind blows. Titan is the only other body in the solar system that has a seasonal liquid transport cycle (precipitation) like Earth. It is also a target for space

Sharks Take Refuge In Deep Waters To Survive The Natural Calamities And Their Aftermath

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Existing on earth for more than 400 million years, sharks have learned how to survive natural disasters and mass extinction events by diving deep into oceans and predicting storms. Along with volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and hurricanes, they have also survived the Big Five - the series of mass destruction events that destroyed swathes of plants and animals over millions of years. Image Credits: Pixabay The most disastrous of them was the Permian-Triassic extinction also known as the Great Dying, which occurred 252 million years ago. This mass extinction event destroyed 90 percent of marine life, 70 percent of land wildlife from which the Earth took 10 million years to recover. However, sharks survived. Finding Evidence For Shark Life In Deep Water According to the research published in 2013, during the Cretaceous period (a geological period that lasted about 145 to 66 million years ago), palaeontologists (people who study fossils) found fossilised teeth of the tiny Cladodontomorph s

You’ve seen The Adam Project, but does the science hold?

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Warning: this article contains spoilers If you saw The Adam Project recently and found yourself wondering if there was any truth to the science in it, then you have come to the right place. Today, we will discuss if the movie has more fiction or science and what might really happen if the science does hold.   Was the science behind the plot real?  I’m not referring to scenes where the glass doors that somehow didn’t shatter in the wake of the grenade that blasted even evil time travel agents off their feet, or the bullet that was only attracted to the giant magnet after it left the gun in the baddie’s hands. After all, no fictional movie franchise is above fudging the physics a bit for the sake of good cinematography. I’m talking about time travel. Are we really just a few decades away from it being real? Or are Ryan Reynolds (Adam Reed), Walker Scobell (nerdy 12-year-old Adam Reed), Mark Ruffalo (Dr. Louis Reed, time-travel-inventing genius), and Catherine Keener ( Maya Sorian, who t

Good Cholesterol (HDL) Particles In Cerebrospinal Fluid Play A Vital Role In Protecting The Brain

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Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC (University of Southern California), US have proposed a connection between good cholesterol particles in cerebrospinal fluid and brain health. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and cushions them from injury, while also providing nutrients. Image Credits: Pixabay Medical guidelines made to reduce the risks of health diseases focus on levels of cholesterol in the blood, including HDL (high-density lipoproteins) known as "good cholesterol" and LDL (low-density lipoproteins) known as "bad cholesterol". During the study, researchers took samples of cerebrospinal fluid from people aged between 60 and above and estimated the number of good cholesterol particles in each sample. The team discovered that these particles were associated with two crucial indicators that might play a defensive role against Alzheimer's disease, a neurological disorder that destroys thinking and

Biofuels, a Solution to High Prices but What Exactly Do They Cost Us in the Long Run?

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Image: A biofuel production plant in Iowa President Joe Biden said that his government will relax limitations on the sale of E15—gasoline that contains 15% ethanol—as well as additional investments in biofuels as an effort to alleviate Americans' agony at the gas pump. However, scientists who research the environmental impact of ethanol are dissatisfied with the choice. What is ethanol in fuel? Fuel ethanol is the same sort of alcohol found in drinks, but with "denaturant" additives that prevent it from being consumed. The use of ethanol in gasoline reduces the need for crude oil.  E10 is presently the most common gas marketed in the United States. Ethanol is typically made in the United States by fermenting sugar from corn starch. Sugar cane is used in other nations, such as Brazil. Following a study on E15's pollution  impact, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved its usage in 2011. According to authorities, it is now available at 2,300 petrol stati

Researchers Find Plastic Traces In The Lung Tissues Of The Human Body

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Scientists have found particles of plastics in human tissues with PET and polypropylene most common. Image credits: Pexels Microplastic pollution has caused damage to the lungs of living people. The traces of plastics have been discovered in the tissues of the patients undergoing surgery. Scientists said that microplastic pollution is everywhere across the world, which has made human exposure unavoidable. Hence, there is an increasing concern regarding health hazards. Samples were analysed to detect the presence of microplastic pollution. These samples were taken from the tissues removed from patients undergoing surgery. Out of 13 patients, microplastics were found in 11 cases. The most common particles were PET, used in making bottles and polypropylene, used in making pipes and plastic packaging. Previous studies have shown the traces of plastics at high rates in lung tissues taken during autopsies. These tiny particles have entered the human body through air, water and food. Worker

Bird Anatomy Makes The Better-Legged Robots Than The Humans Do

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Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, Germany , have invented a legged robot based on bird biology. This robot balances speed and walking efficiency. Image credits: Pixabay Alexander Bardi-Spröwitz , a researcher at Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems was trying to design a bipedal (two-legged) robot resembling the structure of a bird. The problem was that the biologists were unable to explain the bird anatomy based on technical or engineering terms. “It’s not their goal to build a robot,” said Bardi-Spröwitz. “It’s a bit frustrating for me as an engineer because I need certain types of information.” To know more about bird anatomy, he met Monica Daley , a veterinary scientist at the Royal Veterinary College in England. She offered him the position of postdoctoral alongside her veterinary students. “That got me thinking about how we use our understanding of locomotion and animals to develop more agile robots,” said Daley. The two researc

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