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Genetically Modified E. coli Bacteria Play Tic-Tac-Toe Better Than Unskilled Humans, Shows A Spanish Study

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Researchers at the Spanish National Research Council (SNRC) in Madrid have announced that they had genetically modified a strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and taught it how to play the game of tic-tac-toe. Image Credits: Pixabay The research was started in 2019 when another research group genetically engineered a strain of E. coli bacteria that could sense 12 different chemicals and responded by changing the activity of specific genes. But, the research team at SNRC took this work and applied other modifications. They combined several copies of two circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Each plasmid encodes a separate fluorescent protein. One is green, and the other is red. The ratio of these two plasmids was constant in bacteria, and hence, their final colour is not predetermined, though it can be affected by different chemicals and antibiotics. Also, the ratio remains constant when no modification is done. Thus, the composition of DNA remains unchanged and stores the

Good Cholesterol (HDL) Particles In Cerebrospinal Fluid Play A Vital Role In Protecting The Brain

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Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC (University of Southern California), US have proposed a connection between good cholesterol particles in cerebrospinal fluid and brain health. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and cushions them from injury, while also providing nutrients. Image Credits: Pixabay Medical guidelines made to reduce the risks of health diseases focus on levels of cholesterol in the blood, including HDL (high-density lipoproteins) known as "good cholesterol" and LDL (low-density lipoproteins) known as "bad cholesterol". During the study, researchers took samples of cerebrospinal fluid from people aged between 60 and above and estimated the number of good cholesterol particles in each sample. The team discovered that these particles were associated with two crucial indicators that might play a defensive role against Alzheimer's disease, a neurological disorder that destroys thinking and

Sonogenetics : The Ability to Control Cells With Sound Frequencies

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Image credit: Pixabay Researchers at Salk Institute for Biological Studies, California , have engineered mammalian cells that can be controlled with ultrasound. The method used by the team can support non-invasive treatment methods where no medical devices are inserted into the body to treat conditions, nor is there a need to undergo surgeries. This new technique can be used to develop non-invasive forms of pacemakers and insulin pumps for future use. "Going wireless is the future for just about everything," said Sreekanth Chalasani, associate professor at Salk Institute. "We already know that ultrasound is safe, and it can go through bone, muscle, and other tissues, making it the ultimate tool for manipulating cells deep in the body." Ten years ago, Chalasani got an idea of using ultrasound to activate a specific group of cells. Later, he coined the term "Sonogenetics" to describe this process. In medicine, Sonogentics is the use of ultrasound to manipul

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