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Showing posts from March, 2022

Memristor, a New Discovery Responsible for the Collision of Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Technology

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Credits: www.univie.ac.at Artificial intelligence has grown rapidly in recent years, with applications including speech recognition, image identification, medical diagnosis, and many others. Quantum technology, on the other hand, has been shown to be capable of computational power much beyond that of even the world's most powerful supercomputer. Physicists at the University of Vienna have now created a novel technology known as a quantum memristor that might allow these two worlds to collide, unlocking previously unimaginable capabilities. The experiment was carried out in partnership with the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and Politecnico di Milano on an integrated quantum processor that operates on single photons. The research was just published in the journal Nature Photonics . Neural networks are mathematical models that are at the heart of all artificial intelligence applications. The biological structure of the human brain, which is made up of linked nodes, inspire

Mapping of Hoverfly Brains Helps Detect Drones' Acoustic Signals

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  Credits: UAS Vision For the first time, Australian researchers reverse-engineered hoverfly’s' visual capabilities to identify drones' audio signals from over four kilometres away.  The findings were published in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , and they might assist tackle the expanding worldwide threat presented by IED-carrying drones, particularly in Ukraine.  Trials utilizing bio-inspired signal processing techniques reveal up to a 50 percent greater detection rate than previous approaches, according to autonomous systems specialists from the University of South Australia , Flinders University , and defence company Midspar Systems. According to Anthony Finn , a UniSA Professor of Autonomous Systems, insect vision systems have been mapped for some time to enhance camera-based detections, but this is the first time bio-vision has been applied to acoustic data.  “Bio-vision processing has been shown to greatly increase the detection range of drones in both

Are You an Expert in PCR? Taq Does Not Work the Way You Know

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Credits: Genome.gov The University of California, Irvine's Departments of Chemistry and Physics and Astronomy have discovered new information on a critical enzyme that enables DNA sequencing . The discovery marks a significant step forward in the future of customized medicine, when physicians will be able to construct medicines based specifically on patients' DNA.  “Enzymes make life possible by catalyzing chemical transformations that otherwise would just take too long for an organism,” said Greg Weiss , UCI professor of chemistry and a co-corresponding author of the new study. “One of the transformations we’re really interested in is essential for all life on the planet – it’s the process by which DNA is copied and repaired.”  The enzyme researched by the UCI-led team is named Taq, after the bacterium in which it was initially found, Thermos aquaticus. The UCI-led research discovered that Taq, which aids in the replication of DNA, functions in a fundamentally different way th

Serbian Scientist Build Bioreactor in Urban Settings. It Is a Liquid Tree.

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Planting trees is the most common approach for companies and governments to deal with climate change. However, the method is only appropriate for forests or large abandoned areas. We cannot plant a large number of trees in dense cities where the pollution is concentrated. Fortunately, Serbian scientists have developed a liquid tree to produce clean oxygen. The Big Problem According to the IHME (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) reports, pollution is the major cause of human death, three times more than any disease such as HIV AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. In the context of Serbia, the region has two coal power plants that contribute heavily to the destruction of its environment. As the city is densely populated, traffic and heating and cooling of buildings are also the pollution-causing factors. Therefore, creating green areas in the city is a complex target to achieve due to the lack of free space. The Solution- Making of The Liquid Tree/ LIQUID 3 Dr Ivan Spasojevic , a

Archaeologists Discover Features Indicating 40,000-Year-Old Cultural Settlement in Northern China

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Archaeologists from the  Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany , have found a unique 40,000-year-old cultural site at Xiamabei in the Nihewan Basin in Northern China. They have discovered blade-like stone tools and ochre (a natural clay earth pigment) stains and processing units during archaeological excavations. Xiamabei has been one of the favourite archaeological sites for researchers as it contains cultural features and evidence showing  human evolution . It is different from other archaeological sites as it has a rich history of hybridization and human development in Eastern Asia. Image credit: Pixabay Cultural Features at Xiamabei “The ability of hominins to live in northern latitudes, with cold and highly seasonal environments, was likely facilitated by the evolution of culture in the form of economic, social and symbolic adaptations,” said Dr Shixia Yang , a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of

Scientists Are Harnessing Fish Noises like 'Boops' and 'Unks' to Maintain Underwater Ecosystems

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Many animals' noises have been thoroughly documented. If you look up bird sounds and whale songs on the internet, you'll find a great deal of information. A global collection for fish noises , on the other hand, was pretty much unheard of. That is why Audrey Looby , a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida, University of Victoria collaborator Kieran Cox and an international team of researchers created FishSounds.net , the first online, interactive fish sounds repository of its kind. “People are often surprised to learn that fish make sounds,” said Looby. “But you could make the case that they are as important for understanding fish as bird sounds are for studying birds.” Image: Pink skunk anemonefish, one of the many fish that produces sound to communicate. Credit: Kieran Cox. Source: Phys.org Visitors can listen to audio files, listen to sound visualisations, and more. The sounds of fish are grouped by species and sound name. When you click on the "boop" so

Lack of Oral Hygiene Responsible for Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women Finds Study

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Image: irishnews.com According to a new study published in the peer-reviewed journal American Heart Association , certain oral bacteria were linked to the development of hypertension , often known as high blood pressure, in postmenopausal women.  While earlier research has shown that people with periodontal disease had higher blood pressure than those who do not, the researchers think this is the first prospective study to look at the link between oral bacteria and the development of hypertension. High blood pressure is commonly defined by two measurements: systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher (the upper number showing pressure while the heart beats) and a diastolic blood pressure of 80 mm Hg or higher (the lower number indicating pressure between heartbeats). “Since periodontal disease and hypertension are especially prevalent in older adults, if a relationship between the oral bacteria and hypertension risk could be established, there may be an opportunity to enhance hyper

Blackhole System, Closest to Earth, Has No Black Hole, Shows Recent Study

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Image credit: ESO According to a new study, the closest black hole system (HR 6819) to Earth , about 1,000 light-years away, has no black holes. The system was first discovered in 2020. Back then, two theories were proposed, one with the presence of a black hole and one with its absence. However, a recent study by researchers at KU Leuven University, Belgium , took the initiative to find which of the two theories is correct. They used instruments such as the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (ESO, VLT) and the VLT interferometer to get decisive data to differentiate between two theories. All the evidence reported the presence of a 'vampire star system' in which two stars orbit very closely and one star out of the two feasts on another. There was no sign of a distant orbiting star that would be needed for the black hole theory. “Not only is it normal, but it should be that results are scrutinised,” said Thomas Rivinius , a Chile-based ESO astronomer and lead aut

Plants Use Pungent-Smelling Chemicals to Protect Their Next-Generation From Predators

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Image credit: Pixabay Plants serve themselves as food to various herbivores, insects and larvae. Earlier, they didn’t have a way to defend themselves. However, after millions of years of evolution, they have in-built a defensive system to ensure their survival for the next generation. A recent study by the University of Copenhagen, Denmark , proposed that plants use substances that taste similar to wasabi and mustard sauce that stimulate a burning sensation in their predators' mouths, thereby preventing themselves from getting eaten up. Instead of serving plants as food, these pungent-smelling chemicals repel insects and herbivores to defend them. Glucosinolates are naturally occurring substances in plants that play an important role in their defensive mechanisms. When herbivores start eating plant leaves, the plant tissues are crushed, and an enzyme is released called Myrosinase. This enzyme gets mixed with glucosinolates to produce toxic metabolites that inhibit most insects to

The Rotation Axis of a Black Hole Is Tilted More Than 40 Degrees in a Binary Star System Find Finn Researchers

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  Image credit:  Pixabay The researchers at the  University of Turku, Finland,  have found that the rotation axis of a black hole in a binary star system is tilted more than 40 degrees relative to the stellar orbit axis (stars' rotation axis).  A binary  star  system consists of two stars held together by gravitational force. This force makes the stars orbit around each other at a common center. When a black hole passes through a binary system, a force of attraction is established that tilts the rotation axis of the black hole. This observation by the researchers is the first reliable evidence that shows a huge difference between the axis of a binary system orbit and the axis of rotation of a black hole. This discovery can challenge current black hole formation theories and models. "The expectation of alignment, to a large degree, does not hold for the bizarre objects such as black hole X-ray binaries. The black holes in these systems were formed as a result of a cosmic catacl

Low Power Lasers Can Help Tiny Sailed Probes Travel Fast in Space Says Recent Study

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Image credit: Pixabay Space exploration missions, completed using space probes take several years to complete. A space probe is a spacecraft with no astronauts that travels through space to collect information. It sends back data to Earth that scientists can study to better understand our universe. The speed of these probes decreases in space due to a lack of gravity. For instance, a space probe named New Horizon, sent to Pluto took ten years to reach its destination, the dwarf planet in July 2015. Similarly, traveling to Proxima Centauri B, the star closest to our Sun will take thousands of years, even for big and advanced rockets. To increase the speed of these probes and reduce their travel time, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles  suggested that low-power lasers on Earth can launch and move probes at a faster speed as compared to rocket engines. All they need to have is a boron or silicon nitride sail for propulsion. Just as a sail catches the wind to move a

Scientists Discover the World's Biggest Bacterium and Are Amazed by How It Is Not Like a Bacterium

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Image credit: Getty Images Microorganisms are called so because they are so tiny that they can only be seen under a microscope. But in a new study scientists have discovered an  extraordinarily huge bacteria that can be seen without a microscope . It dwells in the mangroves of Grande-Terre in the Caribbean. Its single threadlike cell can grow up to two centimeters in length—as long as a peanut—and is 5000 times larger than many other microbes. Furthermore, unlike other  bacteria , this giant has a massive genome that is enclosed in a membrane rather than floating freely inside the cell. This is a feature found in far more complicated cells, such as those found in the human body. This separates the newly discovered microorganism not just from other bacteria, but also from other prokaryotes (organisms with very tiny, basic cell structures). "When it comes to bacteria, I never say never, but this one for sure is pushing what we thought was the upper limit [of size] by 10-fold,"

Genetically Engineered Glowing Fish Have Escaped From Confinement Into the Atlantic Forest Creeks and Are Breeding, Says Brazilian Study

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Image credit: Pixabay 'Glofishes', genetically-engineered fishes capable of producing light, have escaped captive areas in southeast Brazil and are reproducing in nature, a Brazilian study has reported.  A glow fish is a genetically-engineered zebrafish that has genes for producing light. As these fishes glow in the dark, they are special for aquariums that want to attract fish. They are popular in the commercial fish market and trademarked as "Glofish". GloFish came into existence in the late 1990s. Scientists in Singapore designed these fishes to detect pollution in water. For the experiment, they chose zebrafishes as they can withstand various water conditions and temperature fluctuations. They are also the most common research models for various scientific studies, especially for drug development and biology. The scientists extracted red luminescence (light-producing) genes from corals and blue and green luminescence genes from jellyfish and injected them into t

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